Life was hard for the Celtic tribes. The use of iron changed trade and brought local independence to the tribes. Many years ago during ancient Greek times, Pytheas called these northern islands collectively, ai Bpettaviai (hai Brittaniai) which has been translated to the Brittanic Isles. In northern England and north Wales, where Roman garrisons were maintained, Roman influence did not extend far from the ‘bubble’ of Mediterranean culture contained within individual military bases. They were also fierce warriors who were often at war with each other. The high number of granaries and storage pits found in Celtic settlements suggests that most farming communities produced a substantial grain surplus. The Celts had a different form of child rearing in those days. They routinely cut off the heads of their enemies in battle and displayed them as trophies. It is believed that the majority of Briton population respresented a continuity with the preceding Bronze Age. At all levels of Celtic society, women appear to have had greater freedom than in Rome, possessing more of a partnership with men when it came to marriage, business, land ownership and the home. Perhaps it’s unsurprising that little of the Roman way of life survived to influence the later development of England, Scotland and Wales. We know very little about the ways in which tribes were organised, but some of the larger ones were governed from the hillforts by powerful ruling monarchies. It later became the English Kingdom of Northumbria. The foster father many times was the brother of the birth mother. Our best wishes for a productive day. The Celtic way of life was essentially rural and centred upon the farm. We know next to nothing about the gods and goddesses of the Celts. It is properly pronounced Kelt. Boudica was a queen of the Iceni in what is now East Anglia. The ethnic names they gave to these Iron Age Celtic tribes may not be the names by which they knew themselves. As a consequence, she found herself at odds with a large anti-Roman faction, led by her husband Venutius. Gods were apparently specific to particular tribes, or were connected to important features in the landscape, such as a river, spring, forest or mountain. What if… Boudica had defeated the Romans? No one called these people living in Britain during the Iron Age Celts until the 18th century. You have successfully linked your account! They were mainly farmrs who grew, gathered or hunted for their own food. The Druids were considered the glue holding together the Celtic culture. She too signed a treaty with Rome and, when Caratacus, leader of the British resistance war came to her for help, she betrayed him to Rome. Celt comes from the Greek word, Keltoi and means barbarians. Although this new form of Celtic identity is far removed from its prehistoric origins, it is surely testament to the powerful nature of this most distinctive and magnificent of ancient civilisations. Sacrificed in order to placate the gods, their bodies were placed away from the settlements, in the watery places that formed the boundaries to tribal lands. Britain was invaded by the Roman empire in AD 43, the southern half of the island being controlled by Rome until the 5th century. Below is a list of the well known tribes: Each large tribe was ruled by a chieftain/king or queen. Most histories I have read indicate that for some reason knowledge of when exactly the Roman’s last legion in Britannia was withdrawn is not clear, someplace the withdrawal as early as 390 AD and certainly no later than 400 AD but this article nominates 410 AD. They were frequently depicted as savage, warlike and dangerous; a very real threat to the survival of Mediterranean culture. The word Druid is connected with the Celtic term for oak, trees and sacred groves and loomed large in Celtic religious life. The native British power structure of kings, queens and landowners was largely retained by the new government as a useful way of devolving power to existing leaders, encouraging them to join the Roman-citizenship ‘club’. Numerous British kingdoms evolved in the years following the collapse of Roman rule. Britons or Brythons or British people were not the original inhabitants of what we call England today, but they were certainly one of the earlier peoples to inhabit what we call England today. The Greeks called them ‘Keltoi’ or ‘Galatians’, while the Romans knew them as ‘Celtae’ or ‘Gauls’. They were simply known as Britons. Northwest Europe was dominated by three main Celtic groups: the Gauls (in France), the Britons (in England) and the Gaels (in Ireland). They arrived in Britain as separate tribes that migrated there and were loosely tied by a similar language, religion, and cultural expression. Celtic groups existed throughout central Europe, on the fringes of the classical world, from the 4th century BC. This newly conquered territory, the old Roman Brittania, became known as England. Other privileged classes would have included artisans (those who made exquisite artefacts), priests/ priestesses and bards.